- Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery.
- Human trafficking is prevalent in many countries around the world. Different countries may be primarily sites of origin, transit, destination, and/or internal trafficking.
- Cases of human trafficking have been reported in all fifty states of the United States (Free the Slaves).
- Human trafficking is a market-based economy that exists on principles of supply and demand. It thrives due to conditions which allow for high profits to be generated at low risk.
What is Human Trafficking?
As defined in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, the legal definition of “severe forms of trafficking in persons” is:
a) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or
b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.
Under the legal definition, trafficking victims in the US can be divided into three populations:
- Minors (under age 18) involved in commercial sex;
- Adults age 18 or over involved in commercial sex via force, fraud, or coercion;
- Children and adults forced to perform labor and/or services in conditions of involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery, via force, fraud, or coercion.
- Victims are trafficked for a wide variety of purposes, such as commercial sex, agricultural work, or housekeeping, yet they all share the loss of one of our world’s most cherished rights—freedom.
- There is no one consistent face of a trafficking victim. Trafficked persons can be rich or poor, men or women, adults or children, and foreign nationals or US citizens.
- There is no one consistent face of a trafficker. Traffickers include a wide range of criminal operators, including individual pimps, small families or businesses, loose-knit decentralized criminal networks, and international organized criminal syndicates.
- Human Trafficking is a crime under US and international law, as well as under many state laws.
- The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 is the main US law on trafficking. It has been reauthorized in 2003, 2005 and 2008.
- The “Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children” is the main international law on the subject.
The number of trafficking victims in the US is largely unknown. However, hundreds of thousands of US citizen minors are estimated to be at risk of commercial sexual exploitation, and the US State Department estimates that 14,500-17,500 foreign nationals are trafficked into the country each year.
Myths and Misconceptions
- It is important to dispel certain myths about trafficking.
- Trafficking is not smuggling or forced movement.
- Trafficking does not require transportation or border crossing, and does not only happen to immigrants or foreign nationals.
- Trafficking does not require physical force, physical abuse, or physical restraint.
- The consent of the victim is considered irrelevant, as is payment.